The rtpmidi backend

This backend provides read-write access to RTP MIDI streams, which transfer MIDI data over the network. Notably, RTP MIDI has native support in Apple devices including their tablets.

As the specification for RTP MIDI does not normatively indicate any method for session management, most vendors define their own standards for this. The MIDIMonster supports the following session management methods, which are selectable per-instance, with some methods requiring additional global configuration:

  • Direct connection: The instance will send and receive data from peers configured in the instance configuration

  • Direct connection with peer learning: The instance will send and receive data from peers configured in the instance configuration as well as previously unknown peers that voluntarily send data to the instance.

  • AppleMIDI session management: The instance will be able to communicate (either as participant or initiator) in an AppleMIDI session, which will be announced via mDNS (better known as “Bonjour” to Apple users) if possible.

Note that instances that receive data from multiple peers will combine all inputs into one stream, which may lead to inconsistencies during playback.

Global configuration

Option Example value Default value Description
detect on off Output channel specifications for any events coming in on configured instances to help with configuration.
mdns-name computer1 none mDNS hostname to announce (<mdns-name>.local). Apple-mode instances will be announced via mDNS if set.
mdns-interface wlan0 none Limit addresses announced via mDNS to this interface. On Windows, this is prefix-matched against the user-editable "friendly" interface name. If this name matches an interface exactly, discovery uses exactly this device.

Instance configuration

Common instance configuration parameters

Option Example value Default value Description
ssrc 0xDEADBEEF Randomly generated 32-bit synchronization source identifier
mode direct none Instance session management mode (direct or apple)
peer 9001 none MIDI session peer, may be specified multiple times. Bypasses session discovery (but still performs session negotiation)
epn-tx short full Configure whether to clear the active parameter number after transmitting an nrpn or rpn parameter.

direct mode instance configuration parameters

Option Example value Default value Description
bind 9001 :: <random> Local network address to bind to
learn true false Accept new peers for data exchange at runtime

apple mode instance configuration parameters

Option Example value Default value Description
bind 9001 :: <random> Local network address to bind to (note that AppleMIDI requires two consecutive port numbers to be allocated).
invite pad none Devices to send invitations to when discovered (the special value * invites all discovered peers). May be specified multiple times.
join Just Jamming none Session for which to accept invitations (the special value * accepts the first invitation seen).

Channel specification

The rtpmidi backend supports mapping different MIDI events to MIDIMonster channels. The currently supported event types are

  • cc - Control Changes

  • note - Note On/Off messages

  • pressure - Note pressure/aftertouch messages

  • aftertouch - Channel-wide aftertouch messages

  • pitch - Channel pitchbend messages

  • program - Channel program change messages

  • rpn - Registered parameter numbers (14-bit extension)

  • nrpn - Non-registered parameter numbers (14-bit extension)

A MIDIMonster channel is specified using the syntax channel<channel>.<type><index>. The shorthand ch may be used instead of the word channel (Note that channel here refers to the MIDI channel number).

The pitch, aftertouch program messages/events are channel-wide, thus they can be specified as channel<channel>.<type>.

MIDI channels range from 0 to 15. Each MIDI channel consists of 128 notes (numbered 0 through 127), which additionally each have a pressure control, 128 CC’s (numbered likewise), a channel pressure control (also called ‘channel aftertouch’) and a pitch control which may all be mapped to individual MIDIMonster channels.

Every MIDI channel also provides rpn and nrpn controls, which are implemented on top of the MIDI protocol, using the CC controls 101/100/99/98/38/6. Both control types have 14-bit IDs and 14-bit values.

Example mappings:

rmidi1.ch0.note9 > rmidi2.channel1.cc4
rmidi1.channel15.pressure1 > rmidi1.channel0.note0
rmidi1.ch1.aftertouch > rmidi2.ch2.cc0
rmidi1.ch0.pitch > rmidi2.ch1.pitch
rmidi2.ch15.note1 > rmidi2.ch2.program
rmidi2.ch0.nrpn900 > rmidi1.ch1.rpn1

Known bugs / problems

This backend has been in development for a long time due to its complexity. There may still be bugs hidden in there. Critical feedback and tests across multiple devices are very welcome.

The mDNS and DNS-SD implementations in this backend are extremely terse, to the point of violating the specifications in multiple cases. Due to the complexity involved in supporting these protocols, problems arising from this will be considered a bug only in cases where they hinder normal operation of the backend.

Extended parameter numbers (EPNs, the rpn and nrpn control types) will also generate events on the controls (CC 101 through 98, 38 and 6) that are used as the lower layer transport. When using EPNs, mapping those controls is probably not useful.

EPN control types support only the full 14-bit transfer encoding, not the shorter variant transmitting only the 7 high-order bits. This may be changed if there is sufficient interest in the functionality.

mDNS discovery may announce flawed records when run on a host with multiple active interfaces.

While this backend should be reasonably stable, there may be problematic edge cases simply due to the enormous size and scope of the protocols and implementations required to make this work.