Building the MIDIMonster¶
This document is intended to serve as point of reference for anyone interested in building the provided source code of the MIDIMonster. It is not yet finished. It essentially is a long-form version of the build instructions contained in the repository’s README file. In case of conflicting information, the repository README is the canonical source.
The MIDIMonster build system is very much targeted towards command-line, unix-oid systems, stemming from the developers preference for working with Linux systems. This has the additional benefits of being easily automatable, for example to provide automated release and preview binary builds.
With that said, the build architecture follows the standards set and used by most C projects, and thus there should be little to no problem building this project with any set of standards-compliant compiler/linker setup on any of the supported platforms.
This guide assumes a basic familiarity with (Debian) Linux. Basic tasks such as installing a system and opening a terminal are outside of the scope of this document. Knowledge of the standard Linux user accounts and the file system is required for just about any kind of software development.
This guide was written for Debian, with the commands given being specific to Debian’s apt-get package manager. As Ubuntu is a derivative of Debian, most instructions will probably work there, too. The code itself is written independently of any OS, so with some dependency-wrangling it is possible to build the MIDIMonster on just about any platform with basic POSIX-compatibility.
This guide is not maintained in lockstep with the core code. It may, over time, diverge somewhat from what the actual build steps in the repository are, especially with respect to the dependency list as new backends are added. This guide will try to note locations where these diversions may be sooner rather than later. To see what steps the automated build system and the CI system is using, experienced users may wish to look at the Makefiles in both the project root as well as the backends subdirectory, as well as the .ci.sh and .travis.yml files.
To build the MIDIMonster using the provided tooling, depending on which system you want to build for, different things are required.
To build the MIDIMonster for Linux (on Linux)¶
In principle, any Linux distribution will be able to build the MIDIMonster. However the method of installation as well as the names of software dependencies will vary. In the interest of keeping this guide short, this guide will focus on Debian 10 (the stable release as of the time of writing).
Acquire an installation of Debian 10, for example by using a virtual machine or installing it onto a computer. Familiarize yourself with the method of opening a shell, either in a graphical terminal or using text mode, and accessing the superuser account root.
If you are intending to only use this system to build the MIDIMonster, you may choose to use only the root user on the system. Normally, distributions request you create a nonprivileged user account in addition to the root superuser account. You will need to use the root account to perform system-level tasks such as installing software dependencies. You can also use that account to build the MIDIMonster. However if you intend to use the system for other things, the build steps can be performed by any nonprivileged user.
As the root user, install the tools required for the basic compilation of software written in C as well as the git source control system using the following command:
apt-get install build-essential pkg-config git
Fetch a copy of the source code repository by cloning it using git. Run this command as the user you want to use for the build process and in a directory belonging to that user (a user’s home directory is commonly used for that purpose):
git clone https://github.com/cbdevnet/midimonster
Install the required software dependencies of the MIDIMonster, again as the root user. The list of dependencies may change in time when new backends are added, requiring new dependencies, or dependencies may release newer versions. As this guide is not maintained in lockstep with main repository, check the main README file for an up-to-date list:
apt-get install libasound2-dev libevdev-dev liblua5.3-dev libola-dev libjack-jackd2-dev libssl-dev python3-dev
Some of these dependencies add up to quite some space. For experienced users who may not want to build all supported backends, it is possible to only install the dependencies required for the backends that they are intending to build. This will require additional attention during the actual build steps.
To build the MIDIMonster for Windows (on Linux)¶
For reasons of accessibility, automatability, ease-of-use and licensing, building for Windows employs a cross-compilation process from Linux, directly producing PE-format executables (.exe files for executables, .dll files for plugins and libraries).
Follow the prerequisite steps for the Linux (on Linux) build, and additionally install the package mingw-w64, which contains the cross-compiler for Windows using the command:
apt-get install mingw-w64
To build the Lua backend for Windows, a copy of the lua53.dll binary is required. For various reasons, this file can and will not be supplied with the MIDIMonster itself. Acquire a copy of the file (for example from the luabinaries project) and place it into the project root directory.
To build the MIDIMonster for OSX (on OSX)¶
OSX has it’s own way of doing many things, which unfortunately includes such basic tasks as setting up a workable development environment. Instructions on how to set up the brew package manager may be found on that project’s homepage.
Once that has been done, install the software dependencies for the MIDIMonster using:
brew install pkg-config ola lua openssl jack python3
If your system still has an installation of a Python 2.7 release, you may need to overwrite that using the command:
brew link --overwrite python
Building using the makefile¶
The makefile is an instruction file for the make utility. It contains the steps required to build the final binaries for the MIDIMonster and, implicitly, the order in which to take them. This guide will take a closer look at the architecture of the makefile in a later section.
Building for Linux¶
To run the build steps for a Linux version, just run make. This will implicitly call make with the all target, building the core as well as all backends that are configured for Linux compatibility.
make will try to perform only necessary actions, skipping rebuilds of already built files where the source files have not been changed. To force a complete rebuild, the invocation:
make clean all
may be used to perform a clean before building, thus forcing all binaries to be rebuilt. The clean target can also be used on it’s own to clean up any binary files left from a build process.
To build specific binaries, for example a single object file, make can be invoked like this:
which will then only build the core binary, not the backends. In a similar fashion, only specific backends can be built within the backends/ directory.
The build process specified within the makefile takes a number of parameters using environment variables, among others the standard CC, LDLIBS, CFLAGS and LDFLAGS parameters. These can be used by experienced users as well as automated processes to influence the build process. Some of these variables are discussed in a later section of this document.
The makefile provides additional targets, some of which are discussed in a later section.
Building for Windows¶
The makefile provides a target named windows, which overwrites some of the variables for the build process with values that result in a cross-compiler being used, as well as performing some Windows-specific steps. When executing:
the build process will compile the code to a set of Windows-specific files, including midimonster.exe and the backend shared libraries as DLL files. These can then be copied using either the deploy steps described later in this document, or run using an emulator.
Building for OSX¶
The OSX build is conceptually very similar to the Linux build, in that it uses the same tooling, albeit with a different default compiler as OSX uses clang by default. Additionally, the openssl library, which is used for the maweb backend, has some issues on OSX, which require the following commands to be run before building as a workaround:
export CFLAGS="$CFLAGS -Iemail@example.com/include" export LDFLAGS="$LDFLAGS -Lfirstname.lastname@example.org/lib"
This sets up some paths that are (to the knowledge of the author) not easily accessible via established protocols. Should you have further information on how to get this information programmatically, please contact the authors. After performing these workarounds, use the make command in the same terminal to build the MIDIMonster OSX binaries.
This section will describe the basic build steps which are encoded in the makefile. It will focus on the Linux build for this purpose. Other systems follow similar protocols. If your main interest is in experimenting with the source code, this section will not be of interest. If you are interested in integrating new build systems or porting the build to another system, this section may hold value.
Building the core¶
The core consists of a set of object files. These can be found in the makefile as the assignment to the OBJS variable. At the time of this writing, the object files are config.o, backend.o and plugin.o.
Each of these object files is built from a corresponding C source file. Additionally, some of these depend on other source files within the core tree. The makefile supplies some additional arguments to hide non-API symbols from the export table for the compilation unit. When porting the build to a new system or environment, take care to include those as well to reduce API surface and avoid compatibility problems.
A minimal compilation command for a single unit would look like this:
cc -c -o config.o config.c
Once all the object files are built, they can be passed to the compilation of the core binary:
cc -Wl,-export-dynamic midimonster.c config.o backend.o plugin.o -ldl -o midimonster
The core executable requires linking against libdl (using the -ldl linker flag), which provides the functionality to load plugins (the backends) at runtime. The -Wl,-export-dynamic linker flag adds the plugin-accessible API to the dynamic symbol table, so it can be used from runtime-loaded plugins.
As a side note for the Windows build, the core compilation is made to output an import library using the parameter -Wl,–out-implib,libmmapi.a. This import library is required by the backend compilation to allow linking the backend plugins against the core API. Additionally, a resource file containing an application icon is compiled for the Windows target, to allow the resulting executable to have the MIDIMonster logo as an icon, as well as contain additional metadata such as the current version number.
Building a backend¶
All backends consist of C header file, a C source file, and a markdown document containing the backend documentation. Backends are shared objects (.so ELF files on Linux).
A minimal invocation to build a single backend would be:
cc -fPIC -I../ backend.c -o backend.so -shared
The -fPIC and -shared flags tell the compiler and linker to create runtime-loadable shared libraries. The additional include path (-I../) puts the midimonster.h API header file into the include search path for the backends.
Most backends will require linking against their specific libraries (for example, libasound/-lasound for the midi backend).
The network-based backends share a lot of overlapping code via a MIDIMonster-internal library called libmmbackend. This library can be built using the invocation:
cc -fPIC -I../ -c -o libmmbackend.o libmmbackend.c
Creating release tarballs¶
To create a binary distributable archive, the .ci.sh script has some automation prepared. Run:
make clean TASK=linux DEPLOY=1 ./.ci.sh
make clean TASK=windows DEPLOY=1 ./.ci.sh
to create an archive containing binary distribution files in the deploy/ subdirectory. These archives will contain the core executables, the compiled backend plugins as well as the documentation files. For the Windows build, the resulting binaries will be stripped of debugging information to reduce the resulting filesize.
Building Debian Packages¶
This section is of interest for people wanting to either sponsor/maintain the MIDIMonster for inclusion in the Debian distribution, or wanting to provide their own package repository including the MIDIMonster (for example, to facilitate mass installation across a fleet of systems).
The MIDIMonster repository contains a branch with debianizations for tagged point releases. To build your own Debian package, install the git-buildpackage tool as root using:
apt-get install git-buildpackage
Setting up a build system with correct signing keys, etc is out of the scope of this guide. Suffice to say, the process usually works without this setup.
Check out the debian/master branch of the repository and make sure you have no uncommitted changes:
git checkout debian/master git clean -fx
Run the package build process using the command:
After some time, you should have functional .deb Debian packages in the parent folder.
Discussion of the makefiles¶
This section will discuss some implementation details of the makefiles supplied in the MIDIMonster repository. This may be of interest to people porting the build system as well as to integrators and packagers that want to exert additional control over the build steps.
This section is split into various subsections, each dealing with different parts of the two major makefiles.